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    References & suggested reading:

    Allen, O.N. & Ethyl K. Allen 1981 The Leguminosae. A Source Book of Characteristics, Uses and Nodulation. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. ISBN # 0-299-08400-0

    Appleseed, Johnny 1992-1996 Largely unpublished research. Desmanthus leptolobus information has appeared, among other places, in the 1993a Entheogen Review 2 (2): 26-27, "Ayahuasca analogues experiences." and in 1993b Integration 4: 59-62, "Ayahuasca analog plant complexes of the temperate zone: Phalaris arundinacea and the Desmanthus spec."
    The latter piece also exists as an undated privately distributed manuscript.
    [Extraction: simmering with hot HCl (pH 3), ammonia used to basify, CH2Cl2 recovered the alkaloid fraction. Co-tlc used known reference standards. TLC developed with Methylene chloride-Methanol-Concentrated Ammonia (80:15:1); run on Whatman Silica Gel 60 plates. Visualization of alkaloids: used Ehrlichs and/or Xanthydrol as spray reagents.]

    Bentham, George 1874 Revision of the Suborder Mimoseae. Volume 30. Part 3. Pages 386-387. [Desmanthus illinoensis as Desmanthus brachylobus BENTHAM]

    Heinzelman, R.V. & J. Szmuszkovicz 1963 Fortschritte der Arzneimittelforschung [AKA Progress in Drug Research] 6: 75-150. "Recent studies in the field of indole compounds."

    Luckow, Melissa 1993 Monograph of Desmanthus (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) Systematic Botany Monographs. Volume 38. The American Society of Plant Taxonomists. ISBN 0-912861-38-X.

    Stubbendieck, James (with Elron Conard & James Bellamy) 1989 Common Legumes of the Great Plains University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-4204-2

    Thompson, Alonzo C., Gilles F. Nicollier & Daniel F. Pope 1987 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 35: 361-365. "Indolealkylamines of Desmanthus illinoensis and Their Growth Inhibition Activity."
        A curious point concerning Thompsonís title is that the compounds they stated had been evaluated for growth inhibition, and those that were determined to possess this property, did not include ANY indolealkylamines.

    Trout, K. 1994-1997 Unpublished work and personal observations.

    Turner, Billy L. 1959 The Legumes of Texas University of Texas Press.

    VanHeiden, S.A. 1998 Eleusis (n.s.) 1: 109-120. "Desmanthus leptolobus Torrey & A.Gray."

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